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Brains of Rats and Men C. Judson Herrick

Brains of Rats and Men

C. Judson Herrick

Published March 1st 2007
ISBN : 9781406755831
396 pages
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 About the Book 

Text extracted from opening pages of book: BRAINS OF RATS AND MEN A SURVEY OF THE ORIGIN AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX BY C. JUDSON HERRICK PROFESSOR OF NEUROLOGY, THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS CHICAGO ILLINOIS TO THE MEMORY OF CLARENCE LUTHER HERRICK MY ELDER BROTHER, MY FIRST TEACHER OF SCIENCE AND THE GUIDE AND INSPIRATION OF ALL MY SUBSEQUENT ENDEAVORS One does not get nearer to the ideal state any the more quickly by trying to force the shortest cut to the goal of strictest unity, by proclaiming meagre beginnings as the final principles, and by owing to the facts what is saved on the theories. W. KOHLER PREFACE IN the summer of 19 4 I was invited to deliver a course of lectures at the University of California on Mechanisms of Control of Animal Behav ior/ Some of the material there presented is incorpo rated in this volume. Since that time in attempting to formulate more critically the probable history of the elaboration of cortical functions I naturally restudied Lashleys fundamental experiments on the learning processes of rats. The result was that my entire treat ment of cortical function in lower mammals was re cast. This volume is the direct outgrowth of this re survey of the problem of the cerebral cortex. There are two species of mammals whose behavior has been more intensively studied under conditions of laboratory control than any others. These are rats and men. Since one of these stands near the bottom of the mammalian scale and the other represents the culmination of cortical development, it seems appro priate that our discussion should center about these species and the problems opened up by the facts availableregarding their nervous systems in relation to their behavior patterns. I have appropriated freely facts and illustrations from the works of others, to whom I wish here to make general acknowledgment in addition to the special references scattered throughout the text. To the courtesy of Henry Holt and Company we are x BRAINS OF RATS AND MEN indebted for permission to reproduce Figures 8, 25, and 28- to W. B. Saunders Company for Figures 3 and 4- and to the Field Museum of Natural History for Figures 32 and 33. Parts of the text have been read by several of my colleagues, from whom many valuable suggestions have been received. Others, too numerous to mention, have given less direct, though not less valuable, assistance. I am especially indebted to Professor Lashley, who has read parts of the text- and in numerous conferences he has generously given me the benefit of his wide experience and critical thinking. While the conclusions which we have reached are not in perfect accord, we agree that this arises largely from differ ence in point of view and emphasis. But not wholly so- there are some questions that seem fundamental which I believe cannot be resolved by the over simplified formulations now current in the field of objective psychology. These problems are here approached from the biological side and with biological technique. The aim is to limit the discussion to that field which can properly be cultivated with the methods of natural science, though I would extend the confines of this field much further than many of my colleagues seem to consider permissible. In particular, the belief that mind or consciousness as introspectively experienced is a natural phenome non which cannot beneglected in a total view of PREFACE xi human behavior demands that this phenomenon be examined by the usual method of natural science and articulated in some organic way with the vital proces ses in their entirety. The evidence is biologically adequate that mind ( awareness) as we know it phenomenally is a function of a particular configura tion of bodily organs. Without attempting to explore the philosophic implications of this simple datum of experience, we shall find that its biological implica tions are far reaching. In brief, the whole-hearted acceptance of this d